Palliative and end-of-life care with an indigenous-peoples perspective Palliative and end-of-life care with an indigenous-peoples perspective Introduction The Australian indigenous communities — the aborigines and Torres Strait — present a rather different aspect to health care because of their strong attachment to their culture.
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An Indigenous understanding of Reciprocity Reciprocity is an underlying principle expressed throughout Aboriginal societies.
Outline and Illustrate the Importance of this fundamental concept In the economic, social, spiritual and political spheres of Aboriginal life refer to reciprocity In the index to Edwards They also failed to identify the privileges and responsibilities central to Aboriginal society based on relationship and reciprocity Edwards In order to enter a discussion on reciprocity with regard to our Indigenous culture, It must be looked at on two levels.
First how reciprocity Is a central principle that has pervaded Aboriginal societies for millennia and secondly the impact that reciprocity with the Western culture has had on this Indigenous community, since the advent of Colonization. The Western way generally requires the borrower to formulate a case of need, whereas the Aboriginal approach is slanted towards the giver having to explain why he cannot give Schwab 1 In the past the food or other goods ere shared out until they were all gone Schwab Reciprocity influences the political climate of Aboriginal society, especially the law, which was, is now, and always will be.
According to Needing, Davis and Fox There Is an Interconnectedness of all things, an agelessness which bears witness that spoilt exists now, as it did before and that creation exists as an historical fact and also has present currency and will into the future.
In Colonial times, the principle of reciprocity was enigmatic to the Westerners and a constant source of acrimony — politically, legally and culturally. The economy is interwoven with politics, as social life is melded with spirituality. In more recent mimes, colonial interference with its autocratic removal and relocation of key individuals and whole groups resulted in virtually a complete collapse of the traditional Aboriginal economy.
As hunting and gathering is no longer possible for city dwellers, the concept of reciprocity becomes even more important, from an economic point of view, due to the nature of extended families all co-habiting in one small dwelling because of mutual obligation or reciprocity. According to Smith household structure has to stretch to encompass the extra-household fiscal networks it now accommodates.
One must consider the concept of reciprocity or mutual benefit to obtain an understanding of domestic expenditure patterns. To better understand the impact of reciprocity on a single family, here is an example from the Lacuna community Wallpaper peoplewhich is currently representative of many Aboriginal communities Sheathe, E This anecdote illustrates how poor Aboriginal health is indisputably linked to their economic situation and that reduced eating patterns feast or famine Schwab Elizabeth and David are out shopping for their extended family,4 hen Emily approaches and asks for food explaining her welfare money has run out, she is given quite a large amount of food.
This means Elizabethan family will eat well for a few days and then when the food runs out earlier than intended because she has given some away they will have to eat sparingly, or not at all, until the next welfare payment. At the same time David has been approached by Steve to use his gun and ammunition.
David is reluctant to give up his gun fearing Steve will damage it, but willingly gives ammunition. It is no good. In the case of Emily, one can assume that if she has spent her welfare money before 1 1. The substance abuser, or the drunkard still have to be supported by their kin but hey are an economic threat to the household and possibly provide no means of return of the traditional arrangements of reciprocity while advocating that Indigenous people accept more responsibility so a sound economic base can be rebuilt for Aboriginal Communities.
Therefore the economy of this single household is skewed by having to support the immunity in general, instead of specifically their own family.
In the past this would have been balanced out by equal trade-off, from Emily and Steve or their immediate kin but now days, due to issues such as alcoholism, homelessness, lack of education and substance abuse, true reciprocity is not as ubiquitous as it once was.
When it comes to establishing the economic basis of a family, it becomes very difficult to measure their actual income due to people moving in and out of households, but Western society dictates that families meet eligibility criteria in order to qualify for welfare.
The ideology of traditional reciprocity is not taken into account ND Schwab Western politics or law is generally not taken on board by Aboriginal society, or if it is, it is with reluctance and resentment.
With this in mind, Schwab There are two sets of politics law that the Aboriginal people must abide by. On the one hand there are the Politics and Law of Australia and then there are their own laws and politics as illustrated by The Dreaming, where explicit moral lessons transmit the ideology of didactic human behavior Schwab There is outrage in Australia at the suggestion that certain individuals seek to impose elements of Shari law, but we turn a blind eye, or have a lack of understanding of Indigenous people carrying out their version of reciprocity when it comes to breaking their own laws.
Some of the punishments imposed by Aboriginal Law include, death, spearing or other forms of corporal punishment e. As well as an understanding that reciprocity means the sharing of tools and food, there is also a oral principle of reciprocity with its negative forms encompassing retribution and revenge Alkali and Johnsonin Burbank This viewpoint would be considered barbaric in Western culture and would not be tolerated.
In indigenous land management, the politics of reciprocity between Western and Indigenous should involve knowledge and understanding but the white Australian man tries to impose his vastly different practices onto the Aboriginals who have been practicing successful land management for millennia.
To illustrate the disparity of understanding of the principles of reciprocity in Colonial times, Edwards This Aboriginal would then be dealt with by the police and the courts and he would be mystified as he could see no Justice in a system such as this where reciprocity did not play a part.The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies has created the Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies to ensure that research with and about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples follows a process of meaningful engagement and reciprocity between the researcher and the individuals .
ARC Australian Research Council: It is important that research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and communities is led by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and communities. This can mean that the chief researchers — spirit and integrity, cultural continuity, equity, reciprocity, respect, and responsibility regardbouddhiste.com · Australian Aboriginal people are regarded as some of the most researched groups in the world (4).
There has been a recent trend non-Aboriginal. Many communities welcome research if there are Research include the values of reciprocity, respect, equality, survival and protection; and responsibility (13). Putt (9) discusses regardbouddhiste.com · and communities Brief 15, January Dr Judy Putt Written for the Indigenous Justice Clearinghouse guidelines for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research, even if it is not a medical or health- reciprocity.
The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) () has recently revised regardbouddhiste.com · Several relevant determinants of inequality in aboriginal and indigenous health in Australia involve the absence or scarcity of equal accessibility towards lower level of health infrastructure and primary care of health within the aboriginal and indigenous communities in comparison with other non-aboriginal population of Australia (Hemming ).regardbouddhiste.com The 'I' in 'Indigenous' is capitalised when referring specifically to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Central to this negotiation process is the concept of mutual obligation or reciprocity for service delivery. Land for Aboriginal communities or enterprises may also be purchased with money from the Aboriginal.