Overview[ edit ] To fully understand folklore, it is helpful to clarify its component parts: It is well-documented that the term was coined in by the Englishman William Thoms. He fabricated it to replace the contemporary terminology of "popular antiquities" or "popular literature". The second half of the compound word, loreproves easier to define as its meaning has stayed relatively stable over the last two centuries.
In the past, Oromos had an egalitarian social system known as gada. Their military organization made them one of the strongest ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa between the twelfth and nineteenth centuries. Gada was a form of constitutional government and also a social system.
Political leaders were elected by the men of the community every eight years.
Corrupt or dictatorial leaders would be removed from power through buqisu recall before the official end of their term. Oromo women had a parallel institution known as siqqee. This institution promoted gender equality in Oromo society.
Gada closely connected the social and political structures. Male Oromos were organized according to age and generation for both social and political activities.
The gada government was based on democratic principles. The abba boku was an elected "chairman" who presided over the chaffee assembly and proclaimed the laws.
The abba dula defense minister was a government leader who directed the army. A council known as shanee or salgee and retired gada officials also helped the abba boku to run the government. All gada officials were elected for eight years. The main qualifications for election included bravery, knowledge, honesty, demonstrated ability, and courage.
The gada government worked on local, regional, and central levels. The political philosophy of the gada system was embodied in three main principles: These checks and balances were created to prevent misuse of power.
The goverment's independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches also were a way of balancing power. Some elements of gada are still practiced in southern Oromia.
The gada system was the basis of Oromo culture and civilization. It helped Oromos maintain democratic political, economic, social, and religious institutions for many centuries. The gada political system and military organization enabled Oromos defend themselves against enemies who were competing with them for land, water, and power.
Today, Oromos are engaged in a national liberation movement. Most Oromos support this liberation organization and its army, the Oromo Liberation Army.
Oromos are struggling for the opportunity to rule themselves and reinvent an Oromian state that will reflect the gada system. They have been living in the Horn of Africa for all of their known history.
They are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa, with a population estimated at 28 million people in the mids. Oromia is located mainly within Ethiopia and covers an area of aboutsquare milessquare kilometers.
Present-day Oromos also live in Kenya and Somalia.
In the late nineteenth century, Oromos were colonized and mainly joined with- Ethiopia. They lost their independent institutional and cultural development. Oromia is considered the richest region of the Horn of Africa because of its agricultural and natural resources.
It is considered by many to be the "breadbasket" of the Horn. Farm products, including barley, wheat, sorghum, xafi a grainmaize, coffee, oil seeds, chat a stimulant leaforanges, and cattle are raised in abundance in Oromia.
Oromia is also rich in gold, silver, platinum, marble, uranium, nickel, natural gas, and other mineral resources. It has several large and small rivers used for agriculture and for producing hydroelectric power.
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