Morality and the Superego: The founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freudproposed the existence of a tension between the needs of society and the individual. A proponent of behaviorism, B. Skinner similarly focused on socialization as the primary force behind moral development .
In each case, he presented a choice to be considered, for example, between the rights of some authority and the needs of some deserving individual who is being unfairly treated.
Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist, and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug, and this was much more than the Heinz could afford.
Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later. The chemist refused, saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it.
More specifically, from the learning perspective, we will discuss Bandura’s social learning theory of moral development, Kohlberg’s stages of moral development and Gillian’s expanded research on Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. Moral Development | Morality as Rooted in Human NatureDescribe and evaluate the biological perspective on morality. * The biological perspective on moral development assumes that morality is grounded in the genetic heritage of our species, perhaps through prewired emotional reactions. Humans share many morally relevant behaviours with . Free moral development papers, essays, and research papers. My Account The capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling is defined as perspective taking (Berk, ). Our development occurs at ages stages where we develop from infancy till death. This essay will contain my life story to display the .
Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as: Should Heinz have stolen the drug? Would it change anything if Heinz did not love his wife? What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference? Should the Moral development perspective essay arrest the chemist for murder if the woman died?
By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older.
The sample comprised 72 Chicago boys aged 10—16 years, 58 of whom were followed up at three-yearly intervals for 20 years Kohlberg, Each boy was given a 2-hour interview based on the ten dilemmas. What Kohlberg was mainly interested in was not whether the boys judged the action right or wrong, but the reasons given for the decision.
He found that these reasons tended to change as the children got older. He identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning each with two sub-stages. People can only pass through these levels in the order listed.
Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages. Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.
Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong. At this stage, children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities.
Different individuals have different viewpoints. Level 2 - Conventional morality At the conventional level most adolescents and adultswe begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models.
Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs. Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others.
Maintaining the Social Order. Level 3 - Post-conventional morality Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice. According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get.
That is to say, most people take their moral views from those around them and only a minority think through ethical principles for themselves. Social Contract and Individual Rights.
The issues are not always clear-cut. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law.
The principles apply to everyone. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment.
Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage. The dilemmas are artificial i. For example, it is all very well in the Heinz dilemma asking subjects whether Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife.
They have never been married, and never been placed in a situation remotely like the one in the story.The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget’s theory of moral reasoning.
Gilligan concluded that Kohlberg’s theory did not account for the fact that women approach moral problems from an ‘ethics of care’, rather than an ‘ethics of justice’ perspective, which challenges some of the fundamental assumptions of Kohlberg’s theory. Moral development is concerned with the acceptance of morality which brings along certain forms of behaviour, attitudes and values in an individual. This takes place through moral education. So, moral development is closely linked to the other four domains of development that is: physical and motor, emotional, social and cognitive. Gilligan concluded that Kohlberg’s theory did not account for the fact that women approach moral problems from an ‘ethics of care’, rather than an ‘ethics of justice’ perspective, which challenges some of the fundamental assumptions of Kohlberg’s theory.
Developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors.
He does not turn to moral development for moral support, grounding value prescriptions on its facts. moral adaptivity perspective was a crucial innovation.
Moral Stages of Reasoning. Jean Piaget (vol. 1) recognized the virtues of trying to reduce development either to nature or nurture. This is a tried and true theoretical research. Moral Development Essay In trying to describe the stages through which children achieve cognitive development, a number of theorists have recognized that, since not all reasoning involves the sort of school-derived tasks that frequently drive research on child cognition, they should attempt to describe the development of reasoning about moral.
Piaget’s theory of children’s moral development can be seen as an application of his ideas on cognitive development generally.
As such his theory here has both the strengths and weaknesses of his overall theory. 1. Reliability. Piaget uses qualitative methods (observation and clinical interviews).
His research is based on very small samples. Moral development theories are also known as age theories or stage theories. They are also called eclectic theories to imply that ‘everything’ is capable of causing delinquency and therefore tightly linked to ‘evil causes evil fallacy’.
This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's and Rousseau, who all took a more humanist perspective and focused on the development of the conscience and researchers have expanded the field of moral development, applying moral judgment, reasoning, and emotion attribution to topics.