Labour law defines your rights and obligations as workers and employers. EU labour law covers 2 main areas:
The masters, being fewer in number, Labour and employment law combine much more easily; and the law, besides, authorises, or at least does not prohibit their combinations, while it prohibits those of the workmen.
We have no acts of parliament against combining to lower the price of work; but many against combining to raise it.
In all such disputes the masters can hold out much longer. A landlord, a farmer, a master manufacturer, a merchant, though they did not employ a single workman, could generally live a year or two upon Labour and employment law stocks which they have already acquired.
Many workmen could not subsist a week, few could subsist a month, and scarce any a year without employment. In the long run the workman may be as necessary to his master as his master is to him; but the necessity is not so immediate.
However, as a system of regulating the employment relationship, labour law has existed since people worked.
In feudal England, the first significant labour laws followed the Black Death. Given the shortage of workers and consequent price rises the Ordinance of Labourers and the Statute of Labourers attempted to suppress sources of wage inflation by banning workers organisation, creating offences for any able-bodied person that did not work, and fixing wages at pre-plague levels.
Yet conditions were improving as serfdom was breaking down. One sign was the beginning of the more enlightened Truck Actsdating fromthat required that workers be paid in cash and not kind.
In slavery was declared to be illegal in R v Knowles, ex parte Somersett and the subsequent Slave Trade Act and Slavery Abolition Act enforced prohibition throughout the British Empire. Joint Stock Companiesbuilding railways, canals and factories, manufacturing household goods, connecting telegraphs, distributing coal, formed the backbone of the laissez faire model of commerce.
Industrialisation also meant greater urbanisation, and inevitably miserable conditions in the factories. The Factory Acts dating from required minimum standards on hours and conditions of working children. But people were also attempting to organise more formally. Initially, trade unions were suppressed, particularly following the French Revolution of under the Combination Act The Master and Servant Act and subsequent updates stipulated that all workmen were subject to criminal penalties for disobedience, and calling for strikes was punished as an "aggravated" breach of contract.
But then the position was slowly liberalised and through the Trade Union Act and the Conspiracy, and Protection of Property Act trade unions were legitimised. However, with growing unrest and industrial action the House of Lords changed its mind. At the turn of the 20th century he notorious judgment of Taff Vale Railway Co v Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants made unions liable in economic tort for the costs of industrial action.
Although a combination of employers in a company could dismiss employees without notice, a combination of employees in a trade union were punished for withdrawing their labour. The case led trade unions to form a Labour Representation Committee, which then became the UK Labour Partyto lobby for the reversal of the law.
After their landslide victory in the general electionthe Liberalsamong whom David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill were rising stars, embarked on significant welfare reforms.
These included the Trade Disputes Actwhich laid down the essential principle of collective labour law that any strike "in contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute" is immune from civil law sanctions. The Old Age Pensions Act provided pensions for retirees.
The Trade Boards Act created industrial panels to fix minimum wages and the National Insurance Act levied a fee to insure people got benefits in the event of unemployment. Amid mass demonstrations across Germany, in the Versailles Treaty was signed. A new beginning was promised by the victors to their people.
The Versailles Treaty created the International Labour Organization to draw up common standards between countries, for as it said, "peace can be established only if it is based on social justice ", and echoed the US Clayton Act in pronouncing that "labour should not be regarded merely as a commodity or an article of commerce".
Within the UK the postwar settlement was to make a home fit for heroes. Whitley Councils extended the Trade Boards Act system to Joint Industrial Councils that encouraged non legally binding fair wage agreements,  while the Ministry of Labour actively organised and advised the growth of trade unions.
The s and s were economically volatile. The Labour Party had formed Parliamentary majorities in andbut achieved little in the way of reform, particularly after the onset of the Great Depression.
By the Second World War and the Labour government of Clement Attleetrade union membership was well established and collective agreements covered over 80 per cent of the workforce. Though the common law was sometimes comparatively progressive,  sometimes not,  the first statutes to prohibit discrimination focused on gender and race emerged in the s as the Civil Rights Act was passed in the United States.
Discrimination in employment as in consumer or public service access was formally prohibited on grounds of race in gender indisability insexual orientation and religion in and age in Much discrimination law is now applicable throughout the European Union, to which the UK acceded in Meanwhile, starting from the Contracts of Employment Actworkers gained a growing list of minimum statutory rights, such as the right to reasonable notice before a fair dismissal and a redundancy payment.
Despite producing reports such as In Place of Strife and the Report of the committee of inquiry on industrial democracy  which would have made unions accountable to their members and created more direct workplace participation, reform did not take place.
Froma new Conservative government took a strongly sceptical policy to all forms of labour law and regulation. During the s ten major Acts gradually reduced the autonomy of trade unions and the legality of industrial action.
The wage councils were dismantled. A public campaign against the merits of unions paralleled the decline of membership and collective agreement coverage to under 40 per cent.
Domestic led reform was minimal.Labour and Employment law is a multi-faceted practice that pertains to all aspects of labour relations, human resources, and the employment relationship.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union.
Canadian Employment Law: Employment law involves the legal rights and obligations that regulate all aspects of the workplace relationship between employers and employees. Labour and Employment Laws of India The labour enactments in India, is divided into 5 broad categories, viz.
Working Conditions, Industrial Relations, Wage, Welfare and Social Securities. The enactments are all based upon Constitution of India and the .
Employment law, on the other hand, is defined more broadly as the negotiated relationships between employers and employees. Although employment lawyers deal with many of the same. Labour regulations in the UAE are governed by the UAE Labour Law - Federal Law No.
8 of Amendments include Federal Laws No. 24 of , No. 15 of and No. 12 of