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The characteristics of interest are, the mother's age, education, income, sex role orientation, employment status, and the number of years since the mother's separation, divorce, or widowhood, the household size, the age and sex of the oldest child.
The results indicate that children's influence in this family type varies according to demographic characteristics of the family, according to the mother's sex role orientation, according to the type of product investigated, and according to the stage in the decision making process.
Too much consumer behavior theory and research has been focused on the individual consumer and too little attention has been given to the decision making processes involving group behavior, such as those processes of the household Sheth Davis proposed that a theory of household decision making will not emerge by concentrating on decision outcomes, such as who decided or who won.
Rather, theoretical progress will be made when more is known about the processes that families use to make decisions. The most comprehensive existing theoretical marketing model on family decision making Sheth assumes the children are growing up in an intact or two parent family structure.
The Engel, Kollat, and Blackwell Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard model of consumer behavior is oriented around the "normal" page family structure, i.
Ekstrom, Tansuhaj, and Foxman proposed that a child's influence varies according to family structure. Much empirical information already exists in the marketing literature regarding the child's level of influence in married family households Atkin ; Belch, Belch, and Ceresino ; Berey and Pollay ; Foxman, Tansuhaj, and Ekstrom ; Jenkens ; Mehrotra and Torges ; Nelson ; Szybillo, Sosanie, and Tennenbein ; Szybillo and Sosanie ; Ward, Wackman, and Wartella ; Ward and Wackman ; however, very little is known in this area about the female-headed single parent family.
The two parent family structure, while still considered the "traditional" or the "normal" family structure by most researchers, is not the typical or modal family structure in the United States in the 's. Marketing academicians and researchers must devote greater attention to the decision making process within the fastest growing family type in the United States, the female-headed single parent family.
Too much marketing research has concentrated on the two parent family structure, and too little on the single parent family form, especially the female-headed household. Since 88 percent of all single parent families are headed by women Statistical Abstract t67the study of female-headed single parent families is particularly needed.
Since the family is the basic purchase and consumption unit, marketers need to continuously study changes in family structure as they relate to changes in market behaviors. The specific research objective for this exploratory study is to examine the relationships among selected characteristics of single mother's families, and the influence the children have in the family decision making process.
The nine characteristics of interest are, 1 the age of the mother, 2 the education of the mother, 3 the mother's income, 4 the mother's sex role orientation, 5 the mother's employment status, 6 the number of years since the mother's separation, divorce, or widowhood, 7 the household size, 8 the age of the oldest child, 9 and the sex of the oldest child.
These objectives were carried out in a national probability sample of female-headed single parent households. Of the 67 million family households, approximately 12 percent will be females heading families alone, compared to 5 percent in Female-headed single parent families represent the fastest growing family type, up 36 percent since Waldrop and Exter A review of the marketing literature revealed only five studies that, in addition to other issues addressed, also measured the type of family structure and used this measure to investigate the effect that family structure has on selected marketing related variables.
With only five studies, it would seem unlikely that similarities exist in the topics studied, but this is not the case. Similarities do exist along several dimensions.
For instance, four studies measured parental perception of the child's influence in the family decision making process Darley and Lim ; Taylor, Moore, and Glynn ; Taylor, Glynn, and Taylor ; Kourilsky and Murray One dealt with grocery shopping behaviors specifically Sinkula while two had measures for the child's grocery shopping autonomy Taylor, Moore, and Glynn ; Taylor, Glynn, and Taylor Darley and Lim investigated parental perception of the child's influence for leisure-time activities and concluded that in the timing of aspects in the decision process, single parents perceive greater child influence.
Taylor, Moore, and Glynn found children from single parent families are much more likely to purchase food products on their own and influence brand choices more than children from the other family structures.
Taylor, Glynn, and Taylor found children in single parent homes had the greatest influence when their parents were younger, had higher income levels or higher educational levels. Kourilsky and Murray studied the use of an economic reasoning model in family budgetary decision making and concluded that children in a single parent family may be treated more like adults, may be more likely to be consulted about expenditures, and may be better informed about the limitations of family resources.
Sinkula included only single parents in his population and attempted to differentiate between female and male headed single parent families using four life style constructs. He found that, compared to male single parents, female single parents are more organized and use coupons more.
He also found there is an inverse relationship between usage of frozen foods and food shopping preplanning efforts in both types of single parent families. Rather, differences in child influence among female-headed single parent families may be found relative to differences in the nine variables under investigation.
It is hypothesized that child influence in the decision making process increases in an inverse relation to the mother's age, and in direct relation to the mother's education and income Taylor, Glynn, and Taylor ; Taylor, Glynn, and Marlow According to Buss and Schaningera woman's sex role orientation affects her household task allocation behavior, finance handling, and influence in the family decision making process.
Green and Cunningham found that, in married families, a wife's sex role orientation affects the family's decision making process and purchasing behavior.
It is hypothesized that the more liberal a single mother's sex role orientation, the more influence the children will have in family decision making. Colletta found divorced mothers working full time lack the option of leaving their children home, and often take them along on shopping trips.Jan 06, · Kicking procrastination to the curb is a great New Year’s resolution for any college student to make.
You can try to beat studying procrastination by making a . Case Study: Bad Habits That Can Infect Businesses April 23, by Thomas C. Corley Leave a Comment One of my gym buddies who knows that I help companies improve their financial circumstances by fixing their bad habits, pulled me aside to tell me about the new company he just started working at.
THE IMPACT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS. Study habits are important as they influence the academic performance of students so parents and teachers must help in improving the study habits of students.
There is no significant relationship between method of study habit and academic performance of students.
Essay about Case Study Bob's Bad Habit Bobs Bad Habit Skin Body Membrane Case Study Bob, a year old painter, arrives for his appointment with Mary, his dental hygienist, to have his teeth cleaned.
We all have bad energy habits, from hanging out in front of the open freezer door letting all the cold out, to falling asleep in front of the TV, to the classic leaving the lights on all day when nobody’s in the house but since appliances and gadgets all use different amounts of electricity, it’s tough to say which habits we should feel guilty about and which really don’t affect our.
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Records management: The cost of warehousing bad habits.