By his great mercy he has given us a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead" 1 Peter 1: For Christians, that hope is confessed regularly. As we declare in the Apostles' Creed, "I believe in. Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue contribute to the ongoing ecumenical journey of our churches.
The Second Vatican Council 's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium LG declared that the "pope's power of primacy" is by "virtue of his office, that is as Vicar of Christ and pastor of the whole Church," and is "full, supreme and universal power over the Church" which he "is always free to exercise.
Code of Canon Law Annotated comments that this canon pertains to all individuals and groups of faithful within the Latin Church, of all rites and hierarchical ranks, "not only in matters of faith and morals but also in all that concerns the discipline and government of the Church throughout the whole world.
Enchiridion symbolorum DH states that Christ did not form the Church as several distinct communities,  but unified through full communion with the bishop of Rome and profession of the same faith with the bishop of Rome. Through the office "of the supreme pastor of the Church," he is in communion with the other bishops and with the entire Church, and has the right to determines whether to exercise this authority either personally or collegially.
For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven and in John Feed my sheep While acknowledging that "the New Testament contains no explicit record of a transmission of Peter's leadership; nor is the transmission of apostolic authority in general very clear,"  it considers that its doctrine has a developmental history and that its teaching about matters such as the Trinitythe divinity of Christand the union of his two natures in a single person developed as the result of drawing out from the original revealed truth consequences that were not obvious at first: In whatever sense the need and its supply are a proof of design in the visible creation, in the same do the gaps, if the word may be used, which occur in the structure of the original creed of the Church, make it probable that those developments, which grow out of the truths which lie around them, were intended to fill them up.
In the history of the East and of the West, at least until the ninth century, a series of prerogatives was recognised, always in the context of conciliarity, according to the conditions of the times, for the protos or kephale at each of the established ecclesiastical levels: This distinction of levels does not diminish the sacramental equality of every bishop or the catholicity of each local Church.
Since Peter was the only apostle no mention of Paul to have worked in the West, thus the only persons to have established churches in Italy, Spain, Gaul, Sicily, Africa, and the Western islands were bishops appointed by Peter or his successors. This being the case then, all congregations had to abide by the regulations set in Rome.
Primacy of Simon Peter Because of its association with the supposed position of Peter among the Apostles, the function that, within the Catholic Church, is exercised by the Bishop of Rome among the bishops as a whole is referred to as the Petrine function, and is generally believed to be of divine institution, in the sense that the historical and sociological factors that influenced its development are seen as guided by the Holy Spirit.
Not all Catholic theologians see a special providential providence as responsible for the result, but most see the papacy, regardless of its origin, as now essential to the Church's structure. This was derived from the Petrine texts, and from the gospel accounts of Matthew Today, scriptural scholars of many traditions agree that it is possible to discern in the New Testament an early tradition that attributes a special position to Peter among Christ's twelve apostles.
The Church built its identity on them as witnesses, and responsibility for pastoral leadership was not restricted to Peter. Similarly, the foundation upon which the Church is built is related to Peter in Matthew It was from their time, and not before, that an orderly and meetly ordained succession of Bishops originated.
Please see discussion on the linked talk page. June Main article: Historical development of the doctrine of papal primacy While the doctrine of the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, in the form in which it is upheld today in the Catholic Church, developed over the course of centuries, often in reaction to challenges made against exercises of authority by popes, writers both of East and West declare that from a very early period the Church of Rome was looked to as the centre of reference for the whole Church.
It is impossible to deny that, even before the appearance of local primacies, the Church from the first days of her existence possessed an ecumenical center of unity and agreement.
This formula, and the definition of the universal primacy contained in it, have been aptly analyzed by Fr Afanassieff and we need not repeat his argument here. Neither can we quote here all testimonies of the fathers and the councils unanimously acknowledging Rome as the senior church and the center of ecumenical agreement.
It is only for the sake of biased polemics that one can ignore these testimonies, their consensus and significance. The doctrine of the primacy of the Roman Bishops, like other Church teachings and instructions, has gone through a development.
Thus the establishment of the primacy recorded in the Gospels has been gradually more clearly recognized and its implications developed.
Clear recognition of the consciousness of the Primacy of the Roman Bishops, and of the recognition of the Primacy by the other churches appear at the end of the 1st century Ignatius elevated the Roman community over all the communities using in his epistle a solemn form of address.
Twice he says of it that it is the presiding community, which expresses a relationship of superiority and inferiority.essay on the religious philosophy of Gregory of Nyssa / Hans Urs von Balthasar ; translated by Mark Sebanc.
a Presence and thought: |b essay on the religious philosophy of Gregory of Nyssa / a Communio books |a X0. "The Church as Koinonia of Salvation: Its Structures and Ministries" () from the Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue in the United States. [Read PDF] Presence and Thought: Essay on the Religious Philosophy of Gregory of Nyssa (A Communio [Read PDF] Eros for the Other: Retaining Truth in a Pluralistic World Ebook Online.
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Hans Urs von Balthasar Von Balthasar presents one of the few serious studies available on the thought /5(7). Gregory of Nyssa: the letters / by: Gregory, of Nyssa, Saint, ca.
ca. Published: () Die Lehre Gregors von Nyssa vom Guten und Bösen und von . Preface "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he has given us a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead" (1 Peter ).