Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire Sincewhen Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman EmpireDecline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured. Timespan[ edit ] The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was the process in which it failed to enforce its rule. The loss of centralized political control over the West, and the lessened power of the East, are universally agreed, but the theme of decline has been taken to cover a much wider time span than the hundred years from
Kingdom of Burgundy from to High Middle Ages Investiture controversy Kings often employed bishops in administrative affairs and often determined who would be appointed to ecclesiastical offices.
Meanwhile, the German princes had elected another king, Rudolf of Swabia.
After his death, his second son, Henry Vreached an agreement with the Pope and the bishops in the Concordat of Worms. The Pope and the German princes had surfaced as major players in the political system of the empire. Imperial and directly held Hohenstaufen lands in the Empire are shown in bright yellow.
When the Salian dynasty ended with Henry V's death inthe princes chose not to elect the next of kin, but rather Lothairthe moderately powerful but already old Duke of Saxony.
When he died inthe princes again aimed to check royal power; accordingly they did not elect Lothair's favoured heir, his son-in-law Henry the Proud of the Welf family, but Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen family, the grandson of Emperor Henry IV and thus a nephew of Emperor Henry V.
This led to over a century of strife between the two houses. Conrad ousted the Welfs from their possessions, but after his death inhis nephew Frederick I "Barbarossa" succeeded him and made peace with the Welfs, restoring his cousin Henry the Lion to his — albeit diminished — possessions.
The Hohenstaufen rulers increasingly lent land to ministerialia, formerly non-free servicemen, who Frederick hoped would be more reliable than dukes. Initially used mainly for war services, this new class of people would form the basis for the later knightsanother basis of imperial power.
A further important constitutional move at Roncaglia was the establishment of a new peace mechanism for the entire empire, A comparison of the roman empire and han dynasty Landfriedenwith the first imperial one being issued in under Henry IV at Mainz.
Another new concept of the time was the systematic foundation of new cities by the Emperor and by the local dukes. These were partly caused by the explosion in population, and they also concentrated economic power at strategic locations.
Before this, cities had only existed in the form of old Roman foundations or older bishoprics. Cities that were founded in the 12th century include Freiburgpossibly the economic model for many later cities, and Munich.
Frederick Ialso called Frederick Barbarossa, was crowned Emperor in He emphasized the "Romanness" of the empire, partly in an attempt to justify the power of the Emperor independent of the now strengthened Pope.
An imperial assembly at the fields of Roncaglia in reclaimed imperial rights in reference to Justinian 's Corpus Juris Civilis.
Imperial rights had been referred to as regalia since the Investiture Controversy but were enumerated for the first time at Roncaglia. This comprehensive list included public roads, tariffs, coining, collecting punitive fees, and the investiture or seating and unseating of office holders.
These rights were now explicitly rooted in Roman Law, a far-reaching constitutional act. Frederick's policies were primarily directed at Italy, where he clashed with the increasingly wealthy and free-minded cities of the north, especially Milan.
He also embroiled himself in another conflict with the Papacy by supporting a candidate elected by a minority against Pope Alexander III — Frederick supported a succession of antipopes before finally making peace with Alexander in Henry gave only lackluster support to Frederick's policies, and in a critical situation during the Italian wars, Henry refused the Emperor's plea for military support.
After returning to Germany, an embittered Frederick opened proceedings against the Duke, resulting in a public ban and the confiscation of all his territories. German speaking farmers, traders, and craftsmen from the western part of the Empire, both Christians and Jews, moved into these areas.
The gradual Germanization of these lands was a complex phenomenon that should not be interpreted in the biased terms of 19th-century nationalism. The eastward settlement expanded the influence of the empire to include Pomerania and Silesiaas did the intermarriage of the local, still mostly Slavic, rulers with German spouses.
The monastic state of the Teutonic Order German: Deutschordensstaat and its later German successor state of Prussia were, however, never part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Henry added the Norman kingdom of Sicily to his domains, held English king Richard the Lionheart captive, and aimed to establish a hereditary monarchy when he died in As his son, Frederick IIthough already elected king, was still a small child and living in Sicily, German princes chose to elect an adult king, resulting in the dual election of Frederick Barbarossa's youngest son Philip of Swabia and Henry the Lion's son Otto of Brunswickwho competed for the crown.
Otto prevailed for a while after Philip was murdered in a private squabble in until he began to also claim Sicily. The Reichssturmfahnea military banner during the 13th and early 14th centuries. After his victory, Frederick did not act upon his promise to keep the two realms separate.
Though he had made his son Henry king of Sicily before marching on Germany, he still reserved real political power for himself. This continued after Frederick was crowned Emperor in Fearing Frederick's concentration of power, the Pope finally excommunicated the Emperor.
Another point of contention was the crusade, which Frederick had promised but repeatedly postponed. Now, although excommunicated, Frederick led the Sixth Crusade inwhich ended in negotiations and a temporary restoration of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Despite his imperial claims, Frederick's rule was a major turning point towards the disintegration of central rule in the Empire.
While concentrated on establishing a modern, centralized state in Sicily, he was mostly absent from Germany and issued far-reaching privileges to Germany's secular and ecclesiastical princes:Founded in , University of California Press, Journals and Digital Publishing Division, disseminates scholarship of enduring value.
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This period lays the foundation for much of civilization as we know it today. The classical Greeks lay the cultural foundation for Western civilization.
The Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus unify much of the Middle East and Egypt. Alexander the Great unifies Greece with Persia. Later, the Roman Empire dominates the Mediterranean and Europe. ZHOU DYNASTY The people of the Zhou dynasty lived in an area that was considered the dwelling place of the Xi-rong & Rong-di, with the initial habitat in the Bin place, i.e., in today's central Shenxi, prior to relocation to Mt.
Qishan, south of the Wei-he River. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were both powerful influential forces in their heyday.  This research project compares the economic, social, technological and military situations of the Romans and the Hans.
The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝) emerged as a principal power in East Asia. The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in during the Napoleonic Wars.
The largest territory of the empire after was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom. Hellenistic Monarchs down to the Roman Empire.
The Hellenistic Age suffers from some of the same disabilities as Late Antiquity, i.e. it doesn't measure up to the brilliance of the Golden Age of Greece and of late Republican and early Imperial Rome.